Confucius Asian Cluster Shame-based (Asian version)
Guilt-based Shame-based Shame/Fear-based



GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 4,989,167
Indicated Decisions 2014: 315,482
Population: 1.402 Billion

Hong Kong


GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 856,747
Indicated Decisions 2014: 26,578
Population: 7.3 million



GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 1,050,433
Indicated Decisions 2014: 13,783
Population: 126.8 million



GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 39
Indicated Decisions 2014: 2
Population: 25.2 million



GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 2,821,566
Indicated Decisions 2014: 50,947
Population: 49.8 million



GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 0
Indicated Decisions 2014: 0
Population: 548,000



GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 2,877,185
Indicated Decisions 2014: 146,928
Population: 5.6 million



GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 1,332,693
Indicated Decisions 2014: 36,551
Population: 23.4 million

The Confucius Asian Cluster is made up of 8 countries

For detailed information on the Primary and Secondary Cultural Characteristics, go here.

  • Characteristics of the Confucius Asian Cluster

  • Social Control

    Shame-based (Asian version)
  • Culture

    This cluster has the most people and tends to be ruled by Confucian thought.
    Proper etiquette, customs, and manners are extremely important in this cluster.
    The most central values are Collectivism, Long-term time, and High Context communication. The values of this cluster also include high Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Being. Anglo-American is the most Individualistic and Confucius Asian the most Collectivist clusters. School, marriage, and career decisions are made based on what is best for the family.
    Arranged marriages are evolving to a mixture of arrangement and love.
    Maslow has self-actualization at its peak in the West; In Asia, it might be social harmony. Choice in Individualistic groups may encourage, but cause anxiety in a Collectivistic group. Event time occurs in places like Latin America, Africa, and many places across Asia. Particularist societies are more likely found in Asia, Latin America, and Russia.
    Neutral cultures (as in Asia) try to have reason influence behavior rather than emotion. Speaking in Neutral cultures tends to be monotonic, controlled, and lacking in emotions. Silence during meals is welcomed in Asia to allow quiet, respectful thinking.
    Saving face is necessary in Collectivist nations; It preserves harmony and respect.
    Face is also connected with Neutral cultures, because being expressive can embarrass.
    You “give face” to others by politeness, kindness, and overall generosity.
    You “save face” by making sure your dignity is not compromised.
    Try not to embarrass others by chastising or even being overly complimentary.
    Greet people from Neutral cultures formally and avoid the banter of Affective cultures. Globalization and the youth culture are starting to change this cluster to some degree.
    The way you carry yourself and dress is more important than what you say (context). Confucius says that there is no limit to wine; Drinking loosens you up and promotes harmony.
    Preferential treatment is given to insiders and is considered normal.
    China and all other nations in this cluster are more Being than Japan which is high Doing. Japan is more Universalist and China Particularist.
  • Economics

    Asian business cards should be studied, commented on, and put carefully in the pocket.
    In global companies Europeans/Americans dominate the conversation; Asians are quiet. Chinese, Korean, and Japanese businessmen want to get drunk with you to close a deal. Japan has been a strong economy sine the 1950’s, but has slowed in growth for 25 years. Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore grew a lot economically at end of 20th century. China GDP has grown a lot since it became a market economy in the 1990’s and 21st century. China’s economy is now almost as large as the U.S., but only 1/4th in size per capita.
    In a high Power Distance culture like Korea, workers want autocratic bosses.
  • History / Politics

    Leader are suppose to have integrity, dependability, trustworthiness, and honesty.
    U.S. and Britain fought Japan during World War II, but now are seen as a strong allies in region. Japan was very militaristic in WWII, conquering and mistreating China, Korea, and others. Japan now has sworn off military and depends on the U.S. to protect it.
    These countries, especially Japan and Korea, are some of the most ethnically pure of countries.
  • Spirituality

    Korea and China have both had a large growth of Christianity.
    Japan continues to be very secular and has very few Christians in the country.
    Korea is sending a lot of missionaries elsewhere; China has missionaries within its country.