Eastern European and Central Asian Cluster shame-based (Western or Islamic version)
Guilt-based Shame-based Shame/Fear-based

Afghanistan

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 584,269
Indicated Decisions 2014: 77,687
Population: 32.0 million

Albania

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 1,187,519
Indicated Decisions 2014: 61,865
Population: 3.2 million

Armenia

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 183,154
Indicated Decisions 2014: 17,233
Population: 3.0 million

Azerbaijan

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 724,295
Indicated Decisions 2014: 38,571
Population: 9.6 million

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 382,583
Indicated Decisions 2014: 14,555
Population: 3.8 million

Bulgaria

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 701,785
Indicated Decisions 2014: 35,542
Population: 7.1 million

Belarus

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 1,035,071
Indicated Decisions 2014: 20,643
Population: 9.3 million

Cyprus

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 139,389
Indicated Decisions 2014: 5,940
Population: 1.2 million

Czech Republic

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 1,115,720
Indicated Decisions 2014: 34,001
Population: 10.8 million

Estonia

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 196,370
Indicated Decisions 2014: 9,865
Population: 1.3 million

Georgia

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 794,715
Indicated Decisions 2014: 43,794
Population: 4.3 million

Greece

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 615,680
Indicated Decisions 2014: 22,650
Population: 11.1 million

Croatia

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 660,787
Indicated Decisions 2014: 21,151
Population: 4.3 million

Hungary

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 1,165,441
Indicated Decisions 2014: 46,624
Population: 9.9 million

Kyrgyz Republic

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 470,509
Indicated Decisions 2014: 53,385
Population: 5.7 million

Kosovo

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 0
Indicated Decisions 2014: 0
Population: 2.1 million

Kazakhstan

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 2,941,452
Indicated Decisions 2014: 110,880
Population: 16.8 million

Lithuania

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 480,830
Indicated Decisions 2014: 21,563
Population: 3.0 million

Latvia

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 313,111
Indicated Decisions 2014: 16,801
Population: 2.0 million

Moldova

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 290,558
Indicated Decisions 2014: 16,151
Population: 3.4 million

Montenegro

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 57,524
Indicated Decisions 2014: 2,427
Population: 626,000

Macedonia

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 266,392
Indicated Decisions 2014: 7,007
Population: 2.1 million

Mongolia

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 528,526
Indicated Decisions 2014: 17,865
Population: 2.9 million

Poland

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 1,772,375
Indicated Decisions 2014: 30,346
Population: 38.2 million

Romania

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 3,209,484
Indicated Decisions 2014: 184,718
Population: 21.6 million

Serbia

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 1,013,897
Indicated Decisions 2014: 32,603
Population: 9.4 million

Russian Federation

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 5,296,425
Indicated Decisions 2014: 290,769
Population: 142 million

Slovenia

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 189,014
Indicated Decisions 2014: 10,334
Population: 2.1 million

Slovakia (Slovak Republic)

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 393,382
Indicated Decisions 2014: 13,783
Population: 5.5 million

Tajikistan

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 245,392
Indicated Decisions 2014: 31,778
Population: 8.6 million

Turkmenistan

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 74,105
Indicated Decisions 2014: 10,985
Population: 5.4 million

Ukraine

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 4,395,936
Indicated Decisions 2014: 118,959
Population: 44.6 million

Uzbekistan

Shame-based

GMO Gospel Visits 2014: 887,812
Indicated Decisions 2014: 156,253
Population: 29.7 million

For detailed information on the Primary and Secondary Cultural Characteristics, go here.

  • Characteristics of the Eastern European and Central Asian Cluster

  • Social Control

    shame-based (Western or Islamic version)
  • Culture

    More diverse group than most clusters with limited amounts of cultural research. This area includes the Slavs of Russia, Poland, and Slovenia.
    Hungarians started as tribes in the Urals and have spread all across the region. Many languages and many backgrounds comprise this cluster.
    Weather has strongly influenced the culture; People have had nomadic lifestyles to survive. Mongolia and Siberia have the most extreme temperatures.
    They are tough and tenacious with outsiders, but nice to family and clan members.
    They have high Power Distance, but not as much as in Asia or Africa.
    Power Distance is high, but women have high prestige for a high Power Distance society. People will invite you into their own home like they have known you forever.
    They will give you gifts, food, conversation and lots of alcohol to drink.
    If you say you like something in their home, they might even give it to you.
    They are Collectivist, but primary with respect to the extended family.
    They are Competitive due to fighting against others and the weather over the years.
    They are Particularist since they will treat clans members with different rules than others. They are gregarious to people they know with lots of hugs and kisses to both genders.
  • Economics

    These countries have had to move from communist to market-based economies.
    Many of them were under control of the Soviet Union after WWII until it broke up in 1991. Many of these countries have developing economies with high levels of corruption.
    Some of these are in the European Union, but are mostly smaller, weaker economies.
  • History / Politics

    European and Asian influences occur because the nomadic groups moved across both areas. Region has been dominated by other countries, so tribe and family are most important. Eastern Europe nations were part of empires, but they have tended to be free after WWII. Ottoman Turks, Prussia, and Soviet Union were dominant in parts of this area.
    Their borders have changed frequently due to no natural obstacles to army movements. Vienna is often a gateway to Western Europe and these countries.
    They identify themselves more as European, but have elements of Asia also.
  • Spirituality

    The Greek Orthodox church has had a huge influence on many countries in this cluster. The Russian Orthodox church is the largest of these eastern churches.
    About 44% of people are Orthodox, 31% are western Christians, and 16% are Muslims. Greeks, Kazakhstan, and Albania were influenced by Turkish and Muslim influences. Eastern church has become very ceremonial with this more important than true spirituality.